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EFA T-12


The EFA (Etudes et Fabrications Aeronautiques) T-12 was developed during the mid-'50 on the same concept used for the USAF

K-1/MA-2 series.

It was made from a zippered hood connected to the breathing system and comms, a fibreglass shell and a Plexiglas faceplate fixed to the hood frame by a spring-loaded lock. The faceplate contained an electric defogging system.

Apparently the shell could be painted in either a light green color or pearl-grey (similar to the EFA 21/23 series), with the EFA logo decal placed on top.

This particular example dates from 1961.

Used mainly by Dassault Mirage series pilots, it was subsequently replaced by the EFA 21/23 Partial-pressure helmet. It is not known if the T-12 was ever exported.​



Starting in 1956, different combat aircraft were tested in search of a replacement for the obsolescent DH Vampires. With the Russian invasion of Hungary, the Cold War was at its peak. The commander of the Swiss  air and anti-aircraft   forces, Div. Etienne Primault, had personnally witnessed the completely inadequate combat aircraft equipment of the Swiss Fliegertruppe at the outbreak of the war in 1939. In this new threatening situation, he wanted the best material for his Air Force. After the Swiss fighter bomber P-16 project cancellation, despite strengthened in 1958 with one hundred British Hawker Hunter fighters, the AF needed a potent high-performance aircraft. In 1959, the aircraft procurement working group presented its report about the trials carried out during 1958/59. The Swedish Saab J-35 Draken, the American Lockheed F-104 Starfighter and Grumman F-11-1F Super Tiger, the French Dassault Mirage III and the Italian Fiat G-91 were tested by general staff officers Col i Gst Willy Frei and Maj i Gst Arthur Moll. (pictured prior a flight on a Mirage III B)

The Mirage III was the declared winner of this contest, and following the era high altitude intercept profiles,  suitable high altitude equipment was tested.

Having a very similar design to the American K-1, the EFA T-12 showed the same shortcomings, though, like the severely hampered wearer’s head mobility, thus significantly reducing his field of vision. 
Due to this, the helmet was declared “nicht truppentauglich” – not suitable for (troop) operational use. 

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